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(Tianjin University Precision Instrument and Optical Electronic Engineering Key Laboratory Key Laboratory Super Fast Laser Research Office)

This article is selected from "Physics" 2021, No. 11

Abstract Precision timing control is indispensable in the exploration of the scientific process, which is an important guarantee for high performance work under extreme conditions. The timing control technology of the Azu, provides a strong technical support for scientific detection devices to achieve more fine, faster, higher energy, and higher resolution. The article introduces the optical main clock generator of the Audi-Jitter, the timing signal of the Azu intensive, the distribution technology of the optical, radio signal source, and the scientific principle of the high-precision time error compensation technology of long links, and introduces these cut-edge technology X-ray free electronic lasers, super short laser devices, applications in large-scale radio telescope arrays.

Key words Azudi, timing synchronization, laser optical, femtosecond laser



Scientists continue to develop new technologies, develop new equipment to observe the world, pursue experiments with minimal size, fastest speed, strong energy, and farthest. In many front edge sciences, the time base within the experimental device needs to be very accurately assigned to achieve the ultimate detection effect. At present, in the scientific detection device that has been built or in construction, the aose (1 AS=10-18 S) level timing synchronization control can achieve the highest standard.

Many physical processes in the micro world, the chemical reaction is extremely short, in order to observe the motion state of the microscopic particles, it is necessary to adopt a pulse detection source with high strength and wide pulse width, to completely accurately analyze the kinetic problems. X-ray free electronic laser (XFEL) (Fig. 1 (a)) is capable of focusing on individual atoms, even focused on the internal interior of the complex system [1, 2], and observed electronics and nuclear movements on their inherent time scale. This is benefited from the substantial increase in X-ray source performance in the past ten years, which can provide unprecedented time resolution (about 50AS) and intensity, and can explore the acts of substances under extreme conditions [3]. There are many large-scale XFEL devices built or built around the world, and atomic molecular physics [4-6], ultra-fast chemistry [7], and a series of research results [8, 9] and other research results. Document [10] reported the use of XFEL to generate an isolated soft X-ray artepath pulse, the light source has a pulse energy that is millions of pulse energy than any other isolated apocyphochid source than the soft X-ray spectrum, and the peak power exceeds 100 gw (1 GW)=109 w). This unique combination of high intensity, high photon energy, and ultra-short pulse duration, making X-ray nonlinear spectroscopy and monotomy-like electrodynamics research possible. [11] Document [11] demonstrates the electronic structure of the transition region molecule during the Ru surface CO oxidation by using XFEL ultrafast pump – detection. The literature [12] reported ionization of amino acid phenylalanine with isolated alchemine pulse, and ultra-fast kinetic detection was carried out at 4.5 fs (1 fs=10-15 s) time scale, and the molecule was observed. Charge migration. Completely coherent soft X-ray apocond pulse generally requires high gain harmonic amplification (hGHG) to produce [13, 14] by high gain harmonic amplification (HGHG) in the conditions of external seed pulse laser injection. To this end, some of the partial active devices (such as seed light sources, all level amplifiers, microwave networks) in XFEL must have a secondary timing synchronization accuracy [15]. In addition, using XFEL as a detection light source to carry out pump – detection experimentally requires a secondary delay accuracy [16].

Figure 1 (a) Japanese physicochemical XFEL device local; (b) Shanghai super short laser experimental device; (c) Chile ALMA radio telescope antenna array of EHT eight-pointer

The extreme environment produced by the very high peak power laser pulses is also the interest of many scientists [17,18]. Super short laser can be seen as the brightest light source that can be generated in the laboratory [19], which is usually defined as: peak power is greater than 1 TW (1 TW=1012 W), and the pulse width is less than 100 fs [20]. Shanghai super short laser experimental device "SULF) (Figure 1 (b)) outputs the highest peak power of 12.9 pW (1 pw=1015 w) in 2019, breaking The unit created in 2017 [21]. Extreme Optical Infrastructure (ELI) of Europe is used to generate laser pulses with extreme peak power and focus strength, its peak power is expected to reach Eva (1 EW=1018 W) magnitude, pulse width is 10 fs [22] . Super short laser provides new technical means for new generation laboratories, material physics, high-energy physics, medical applications, etc., which have contributed to the intersection and development of disciplines. One way to produce super short laser is to utilize optical parameter 啁啾 pulse amplifier (OPCPA) technology, where the optical variable amplifier (OPA) needs to simultaneously inject signal light and pump laser into nonlinear media, requiring pump lasers. The synchronization accuracy of the 10 FS level is implemented with the seed source. In addition, coherent synthesis techniques using femtosecond fiber lasers can also produce super short laser [23], as an example, the basic method is the case, the basic method is thousands of femtosecond fiber Coherent synthesis of the laser performs super-short laser [24-26]. To achieve ultra-high pulse peak power and femtosecond pulse width, this process needs to precisely control the delay of multi-harm homologous femtosecond fiber lasers, and the jitter of the timing control system must be controlled at 10 AS levels.

Astronomers hopes to see the distant uglyhood in the universe, such as the black hole that is scattered in the universe. The scientists of the US National Sports Observatory announced the photos of the M87 garage center black hole and published a series of articles recorded this breakthrough scientific research. It is not an easy thing to take pictures for distant black caves, and you need to shoot the camera with a sufficiently high angular resolution. Considering the size and distance from the black hole, the black hole of the M87 galaxy is one of the most convenient observations, but still needs to provide a camera to provide 22 phenoncained angular resolution. This is equivalent to distinguishing the object on the earth’s surface tennis size, requires a telescope that requires a large diameter to observe. For the black hole taking a picture of the event vision telescope (EHT) [27], it consists of 8-poinsed telescope dispersed around the world (Fig. 1 (c)), its principle is based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI): Ideally The two telescopes that are far from the distance are simultaneously received, and the super-diameter telescope equivalent to the two telescope spacing is equivalent to a diameter of two telescope spacings. EHT’s 8 sets of electrical telescope is close to the diameter of the earth, and all scientists have used EHT for several days of synchronous observations. Through two years of data analysis, I finally got photos of the M87 galaxy center. It is worth noting that VLBI technology needs to interfere and analyze the beam from different telescopes, meaning that the telescope array needs to have a precise timing signal to perform the probe task. For the shorter optical telescope array synchronous accuracy of the wavelength, the working status is to be equivalent to a virtual large caliber telescope, and each sub-telescope must construct a timed synchronization control network of femtosecond or even a second. [28, 29].

Most of the scientific detection instruments used to detect extreme conditions are distributed configuration. As science and technology have continuously in-depth of the world, the synergy between different terminal devices in advanced scientific detection devices needs to rely on the secondary constant synchronous control. Otherwise, the high performance of the overall system cannot be played. Next, the timing synchronization technology and the application of timing synchronization techniques in advanced scientific detection devices.


A second timing synchronization technology

The timing synchronization of the Azu is completed under the support of the two key technologies of the primary clock generator, super high stability clock distribution system. The main clock generator acts as a metronome, providing a timing baseline for the entire scientific detection device. Unlike the metronome in the instrument, the scientific device is extremely demanding on the timing of timing jitter, and the traditional RF clock is difficult to meet the requirements. The femtosecond laser produces a periodic ultra-short pulse sequence, which carries the microwave signals with extremely low jitter, which can be used as a super-steady "metronome" of the advanced science device, called an optical main clock oscillator (Optical Master Oscillator, Omo .

The omo timing synchronization signal must be transmitted to different terminal devices through the fiber link, and strictly calibrate the laser within the terminal device, the timing of the microwave source can achieve ultra-high stability clock distribution, so that the terminal device and the fiber link are detected. The timing jitter is extremely important. The following two key technologies are introduced separately from OMO and super-stable clock distribution systems.

2.1 Optical main clock oscillator based on femtosecond laser

The femtosecond laser produces a ultra-short pulse sequence, a single pulse width as a few tens of femtoseconds, and the repetition frequency of the pulse is in the MHz-GHz level, thereby providing a natural source. The spacing of the femtosecond pulse is not strict, affected by quantum noise, environmental noise, the pulse sequence produces random jitter, which is expressed as the random time deviation of the center of gravity of each pulse envelope in the sequence. There is no feedback control in the freely running femtosecond laser, and the deviation amplitude of the pulse center relative to the ideal time increases as time increases, and the situation of random swing is present [30]. As shown in FIG. 2, the periodic red burst is an ideal position of femtosecond laser pulses in the case of noise, and its pulse interval is strict. Blue burst indicates that the laser exists in the influence of the laser, there is a range of light pulses that appears a certain jitter. As time goes by, the timing uncertainty of the pulse is gradually expanded, and the repeating frequency signal (microwave signal, yellow curve) of femtosecond laser pulse bearer will also generate jitter. Since the photon in each pulse is highly densely aggregated within the time window of narrow to the femtose, the extremely high peak power is provided, so that the effect of random photonic noise such as spontaneous radiation (ASE) on femtosecond laser pulses is minimal, The timing jitter of the quantum limit is low until the anchiose level [31-33]. Despite this, the long-term length of the femtosecond laser is inevitably fluctuated with ambient temperature, vibration, and other environmental noise, so that the pulse sequence produces additional timing jitter.

Figure 2 Feedback laser pulse jitter

The jitter caused by environmental noise typically has a limited bandwidth, which can be effectively compensated by an electronographic locked loop. The repetition frequency of the femtosecond laser is locked using the frequency reference such as the atomic clock, and the effect of environmental noise can be eliminated, so that the femtosecond laser obtains the same frequency stability as the 铷 atom clock. Quantum noise cannot be completely eliminated by feedback control, but the remaining high frequency jitter is extremely low (usually <1 fs), so that the reference to the atomic frequency reference femtosecond laser can be competent to provide an optical main clock oscillator that provides a supercompens "beat" signal. Omo.

2.2 Ultra high stability clock distribution system

A variety of lasers and microwave sources are distributed in a huge scientific detecting device, and the omo timing signal needs to be distributed through the fiber link to these signal sources to make the scientific device to operate normally. To this end, it is necessary to solve the laser and the omo timing synchronization (simultaneous synchronization of light-light timing), microwave source and omo timing synchronization (referred to as light-microwave timing synchronization), and build key issues such as superhang OMO clock distribution link.

2.2.1 Based on balanced optical cross-correlation light – light timing synchronization technology

Balance Optical Cross-Cross – related (BOC) technology can achieve timing synchronization of two separate femtosecond lasers. The BOC method is the measurement sensitivity is directly determined by the pulse width by the time error between the nonlinear optical effect of the frequency (SFG), and the optical pulses output from the femtosecond laser (SLAVE). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of a single crystal BOC. Two-bundle pulses (red) orthogonal to the polarization direction generated by the omo and slave lasers enters the BOC measurement system at a specific time difference Δτ, corresponding to the initial position 1. Reached the position after the two-color mirror 1 is reached 2. When the two bundles of pulses are transmitted in nonlinear crystals, their overlapping portions produce and frequency signals (green), and finally reachabited position 3. It is worth noting that the orthogonal two bundles of pulses are different in the refractive index of the crystals, and the optical paths are different, affecting the delay of the two bundles of pulses. Since the pulse in the horizontal direction is more "fast" in the crystal, it is assumed that the specific initial pulse interval is Δτ0 (determined by the crystal thickness), when the position 3 is reached, the two pulses are completely aligned, that is, the delay is zero. The frequency signal transmits a two-color mirror 2 to one end of the balance detector, and the baseband is reflected by the two-chromorative mirror 2, and then undergoes one and frequency process, the delay of the two bundles is exactly -Δτ0, the resulting frequency signal Received from the other end of the balance detector. Since the two and frequency processes are identical (because the relative delay of the pulse is changed from Δτ0 to 0, the balance detector is subtracted, the two signals are subtracted, the zero level, the pulse itself is fluctuated. Flat amplitude fluctuations are automatically eliminated by balance detection. For any pulse relative delay Δτ, the balance cross-correlation curve shown in the right side of Fig. 3 is obtained. There is a region with a larger slope and a better linear feature near the zero zero Δτ0 of the curve, the level value of the balance detector is proportional to (Δτ – Δτ0), and the detection sensitivity is up to the vetum. The level signal feedback by the BOC is given the chamber length of the femtosecond laser, and the pulse sequence output from the laser can be achieved with the strict synchronization of OMO.

Figure 3 Balance optical cross-correlation measurement principle

2.2.2 Light – Microwave Timing Synchronization Technology

The light-microwave phase measurement method can synchronize the microwave signal source in the terminal device to OMO. In the optical-microwave network, the omo timing signal needs to be converted into a microwave timing signal in a certain manner to provide a synchronous microwave source, and the traditional direct use of the photodetector extracts the timing signal is large because the photoelectric detection process will The introduction of new timing noise is unable to play the advantage of the omo extremely low jitter [34]. In order to solve this problem, people have developed a variety of optical-microwave synchronization techniques based on optical-microwave phase detection, such as balanced light-microwave phase detectors (BOMPD), fiber loop light-microwave phase (FLOM-PD) Wait [35-37], has a timing accuracy of femtoseconds. The basic idea of ??these synchronization techniques is to use the omo output low jitter ultra-short pulse laser sequence as a probe, detect the time error between the pulse and the microwave signal (Fig. 4), and transformed into a level signal, feedback control microwave The signal source transmits the repetitive frequency stability of the pulse sequence to the microwave signal, so that the direct photodelectrode detection additional phase noise is cleverly avoided.

Figure 4 Optical – Microwave Jense Principle Based on FLOM-PD

Figure 4 shows the working principle of an optical-microwave troroscopic based on FLOM-PD. The period of the femtosecond laser pulse sequence emitted by the omo is TREP (usually 10 ns), the cycle of the microwave signal is TRF (usually about 0.1 ns), and the remainder of the TREP and TRF corresponds to the phase difference of both. Δθ. The femtosecond laser pulse enters the ring from the 1 terminal, from the 2-terminal output into the 2 × 2 coupler, in the fiber Sagnac, two-way transmission, two beam lights in the SAGNAC ring Different phase modulations produce phase difference Δφ, Δφ derived from the π / 2 phase shifter and phase modulation associated with Δθ, and the two beam lights are returned to the 2 × 2 coupler and interference, the coupling output is two ways, All the way is IOUT2, and the other path Iout1 returns to the circular 2 port and outputs the 3 port output. Iout1, IOUT2 ??is done in the balance detector, output the level signal associated with Δθ. Near the zero level of the balance detector output, the output level value is proportional to Δθ, so as to feedback the microwave signal source as an error signal such that the frequency stability of the microwave signal is completely consistent with OMO.

2.2.3 Super Stability Clock Distribution Link

The femtosecond laser pulse sequence in the large science device is a laser, a microwave source transmitted ultra-stable time signal, and the fiber link replaces the impact of electromagnetic interference, and the transmission loss is lower. However, the fiber link will be affected by external factors such as ambient temperature, stress change, and introduce additional time errors. With the balanced optical cross-correlation (BOC) technology, this time error can be detected with high precision, and the process is shown in Figure 5: OMO is divided into two parts by the polarization beam splitter, and part of the polarization beam splitter enters the reference light path, reference The optical path passes this part of the OMO timing signal to the BOC. Another way of femtosecond laser is reflected by the polarization beam splitter, and entering the fiber link transmission, when the terminal device is reached, the partial mirror reflects back to a portion of OMO light, and then undergone the fiber link finally reaches the BOC. The BOC is aligned with the omo timing signal that undergoes a round-trip fiber link, which is real-time to get the timing error of the link introduced, and feed back to the servo control system. The servo control system controls the electric delay line and the optical fiber stretcher in the fiber link according to the feedback signal of the BOC, and the time error introduced by the active changing the optical path to correct the link being affected by the environment. Among them, the long-term time drift caused by factors such as electric delay line compensates temperature change, the fiber tensioner compensates for high frequency timing jitter caused by stress or the like.

Figure 5 Time noise compensation of the fiber link [38]


Application of Timed Synchronization Technology in Advanced Scientific Detection

3.1 Pumps Based on XFEL – Detection Experiment

One of the applications of ultra-high-time precision X-ray free lasers (XFEL) is time-distinguished pump – detection spectroscopy. The isolated apocose pulse generated by the high-end harmonic production (hHG) technology has opened the door to explore the sputum science. However, in order to detect inner electronics, photonic energy must reach a soft X-ray spectral segment. Currently, XFEL, which is capable of outputting soft X-ray apocose pulse is the only option to carry out such pump-detection experiments. XFEL is a large scientific device, high-energy pump laser pulse and X-ray apocytic pulses need to be synchronized on the km-level link. As shown in FIG. 6, the simplified XFEL pump-detection system is shown in Fig. 6, and the pump pulse is controlled by the delay device to reach the time of the sample, and the X-ray detection pulse periodically irradiates the sample to detect. In order to carry out an second pump-detection experiment, the entire device requires the timing synchronization design of Yafei second order [39,40]. To this end, microwave devices such as electron gun, accelerator, electron beam compressor in the XFEL device need to synchronize with OMO-like-microwave timing techniques by BOMPD; implanted lasers, seed lasers, pump lasers, pump lasers relative to seed lasers in XFEL Delayed by BOC and other light-optical timing techniques with OMO synchronization. At present, the XFEL pump-detecting the link synchronization accuracy of the experimental device can reach 5FS level [13].

Figure 6 Pump – detection experiment based on XFEL

3.2 Sub-cycle laser frequency domain coherence synthesis

With the extreme nonlinear effect of the sub-cycle laser pulse and atom, molecule, the medium, the electric field oscillation of the laser pulse produces an second X-ray [41, 42]. The wider the spectral, the narrower the degree of the domain pulse, so that the sub-cycle laser [43] can be generated by synthetic high-energy ultra-frequency band spectroscopy. Ultra-frequency spectrum spans ultraviolet, visible light, near infrared spectroscopy, is difficult to directly output through a laser. One way is to use the optical frequency domain coherence synthesis of multiple femtosecond lasers to achieve a flattening spectral spectrum, as shown in FIG. In order to establish a coherence between the femtosecond laser source, it is necessary to accurately control the pulse relative delay and spectral phase between the synthetic passage [44]. Among them, the pulse synchronization accuracy must reach less than 1/10 optical cycle, BoC [45], spectral interference [43] is an important technical guarantee for achieving such high timing synchronization accuracy.

Figure 7 Multi-channel laser frequency domain coherence synthesis

3.3 Optical fiber super short laser time domain coherence synthesis

The International Coherent Zoom Network Project (ICAN) mentioned in the introduction is to break through the power output limit of the single femtosecond fiber laser, using the thousands of fiber flyosecond laser coherence synthesis to produce super short lasers (Fig. 8). In order to achieve coherent synthesis, the thousands of laser lasers come from the same seed source, and the seed source is insegrade and exports after the independent power amplification. In order to achieve the target of the output peak power, the narrow pulse width, the high-precision time between all femtosecond laser beams is also required, which is similar to the most highly high structure with several dice, and must ensure that all the center of all dice The same axis located vertically, like a sugar gourd. If you can’t do high-precision synchronization, it is similar to the center of this dice is not in an axis, but the dice is not a column, but a bunch, not narrow enough. Since the width of each bundle is extremely narrow, in order to achieve the best time domain coherence synthesis, the timing accuracy between the femtosecond laser pulses requires strict control in the sequin level, the delay control system relies on BOC [46], landscape shears Technical means for cutting interferometers [26] provide time error between pulses.

Figure 8 Multi-channel laser time domain coherence synthesis

3.4 Telecommunications Array Time Synchronization Technology

The work of the radio telescope array relies on a large-scale microwave synchronization network to realize the extremely low relative phase error [28] between the plurality of radio antennas, so that the specific astronomical event can be "simultaneously" to achieve the effect of the synthetic aperture. Synchronizing these antennas by using electronic phase detectors in the radio frequency domain, these antennas are limited to 50-100 fs, which may become potential obstacles for future ultra-high resolution distant celestial imaging. The femtosecond laser is used as an OMO, and optical-microwave synchronous control techniques such as BOMPD or FLOM-PD can significantly improve the timing accuracy of the antenna [29, 47], which is described with reference to Fig. 9. Reference to the omo of the microwave frequency reference to the target antenna by the fiber link, using BOC technology to eliminate the timing noise of the fiber link, and utilize the BOMPD technology to accurately detect the local clock and the OMO standard timing signal of the radio antenna terminal. The delay is calibrated by the servo system, so that all the terminal antennas can be synchronized to receive the radio signal transmitted by the observation object.

Figure 9 Synchronous microwave network timing for radio telescope arrays



Advanced scientific detection devices in the study of natural phenomena such as micro, strong field, and long distances, such as X-ray free electronic lasers, super short laser experimental devices, radio telescope arrays, etc., these large devices need multiple Terminal devices such as lasers and microwave sources strictly synchronously perform work commands to make the entire system play a role under the most limit of experimental conditions.

The timing stability of the femtosecond laser is extremely stable, which can become the odd-level shake of the new generation of secondary control system. With the "metronome" of OMO as an overall device, you can first synchronize the laser in the terminal device to the omo timing signal by BOC-based light-optical timing synchronization technique, in XFEL pump – detection experiment, sub-cycle pulse frequency domain Coherent synthesis experiments, time domain coherence synthesis experiments in fiber optic super short lasers. Secondly, based on BOMPD, FLOM-PD and other light-microwave timing synchronization techniques synchronize the microwave signal source in the terminal device to the OMO timing signal, applied in the synchronous XFEL, accelerator, electron beam compressor and other devices, and synchronous radio telescope Array each of the radio antenna. In addition, the noise of the optical fiber link between the OMO and the target device can not be ignored, and the additional noise of the link can be compensated by the BOC method. A second intensive timing control system, such as the central nervous system of the human body, controls the synergistic operation of each terminal module inside the scientific device, so that the large scientific device of the kilometer can take a small observation of the nano-scale micro-physical world, constructing extreme attire The environment, see an astronomical event that occurs within the distant black hole.


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Of course, in addition to passively broken, many K12 industries players have begun to take the initiative to find new revenue points for survival. Although the main direction includes quality education brands, adult vocational education, education hardware, etc., the education hardware is undoubtedly the most popular track.

Online education giant was hit with an example, although the ape counseling as early as 2019 on the launch of a small ape intelligent printer wrong title, but it sold only slide down in the ape counseling App, and under the pressure of "double-cut" policy, ape counseling begin actively pushing small ape intelligent printer in the wrong questions the whole channels.

In fact, in addition to the traditional giants of online education, the head of Internet companies have begun to step up the layout of education hardware. With byte, Ali, Tencent and other giants of the Board, the past year we’ve seen, "smart" form of strong intelligent learning lamp, Guidance No. intelligence work lights, AILA intelligent work lights, work lights products.

It can be said, a door being closed at the same time, K12 education industry also indirectly found the hardware of a window.

Tencent Research Institute released the "2021 China Education intelligent hardware trends insight report" said that in 2020, education intelligent hardware market reached 34.3 billion yuan, is expected by 2021 this figure will grow to 45.3 billion yuan, in 2024, it is expected to exceed one thousand one hundred million scale; Coincidentally, multi whale capital Institute of Education also said that in 2022, China’s total K12 education intelligent hardware market will be close to 60 billion yuan.

Indeed, in the context of double-cut, K12 can transition to quality education, adult education, but some blurring of the boundaries of course, makes a lot of players K12 "soft" business like shackled to dance.

Education other hand, there is the hardware support national policy. 2016, the Ministry issued the "intelligent hardware industry innovation and development of special operations," said education should dig applications hardware and other products, to accelerate the transformation of intelligent education industry. This document provides a guarantee for the development of education policy intelligent hardware.

The September 1, 2021 the first day of school, "national team" with the launch of People’s Education Electronic Audio and Video Publishing House and Netease proper way of a "teach people the proper way dictionary pen" will undoubtedly release a more positive policy signals.

In this regard. PEP vice president Luozhou Hong said: "The proper way to teach dictionary pen ‘This product carries the PEP content of intelligent learning hardware aspects of functionality, experience and other thinking and innovation, the technology into the whole process of education , to tap the wisdom of education more possibilities. "

On the other hand, although previously mentioned, before the scenery immeasurable good future revenues in the "double-minus", but because of the vicious competition in the industry caused by the cost of war and the price of rent, teachers remains high, the overall online education market is actually a loss of.

There are research firm statistics, in 2020 capital investment of nearly $ 15 billion to the field of online education, but the total revenue of the online education industry only a few hundred billion yuan. In this regard, the Board of Directors, Executive Chairman of New Oriental Mr Yu said: "So now thriving online education, are relying on capital received blood transfusions every penny, we must first spend two dollars.."

In contrast Education hardware because there is "educational bonus", and not a mass consumer goods in the level of competition, but there is a higher gross margin. For example, IFLYTEK 2020 results, its educational products and services gross margin as high as 54.25%.

From the product point of view, IFLYTEK AI learning machine X2 Pro on the basis of the price of 4299 yuan, only equipped with a 1920 * 1200 IPS screen, 4GB + 128GB storage portfolio, the processor model also shows only "eight-core." Even smaller than its core configuration price of only 2499 yuan millet flat 5 Pro. Bonus buff Thus education.

Policy is "terrified" of online education industry for stable profits have urgent needs. Therefore, when the track change, high gross profit margin educational hardware will obviously attract more and more players.

And smart phones, PC similar to the hardware in addition to education "hardware", in fact, there is a layer of "software" level of imagination, only to see this level, we can understand why Internet companies do not have the education genes can also be channeling hog wolves flee the education sector share.

First of all, we talk about high education hardware gross margin, in addition to containing the information poor hardware components, or software itself can drive hardware revenue associated with education. For example, although NetEase Youdao dictionary pen X3s Ultimate Support picture point reading function, but users are required to buy their own appropriate picture books.

This is actually a lot like Apple’s "two-wheeled model." Q3 2021 fiscal year financial results, Apple’s total revenue reached $ 81.4 billion, of which services business revenue reached $ 17.49 billion, an increase of 33%, exceeding the income Mac and iPad and become revenue after the iPhone source.

Secondly, under the IoT outlet, the scene is naturally associated with the family living room hardware education is increasingly becoming a battleground. For example, the new autumn conference in July, Huawei will join hands NetEase launched to be included into the ecological Huawei Huawei Holiday – Youdao Dictionary smart pen.

Huawei is considering to build an ambitious "1 + 8 + N" strategy of the whole scene, after complements white, PC, printer and other short board, and the proper way in hand, no doubt means that Huawei has opened up a new field of education, this is connected with the development of other terminals, there is no doubt of great significance.

Along those lines, intelligent hardware natural online education, and other attributes bedroom scenes, in fact, is likely to be par smartphones in the future, smart living room TV control center. Especially considering that most of the students are intelligent educational products of the first terminal hardware, which for the future of devolution peripheral terminal manufacturers, no doubt there is a very important strategic significance.

After all, Apple Mac products have just initially, then along the iPod to the iPhone then Apple Watch, AirPods other products, step by step, build up their own "Apple ecosystem."

From this point of view, although intelligent educational hardware fiery forced some ingredients, but once giants see through the business value behind, creating a wave of intelligent educational hardware and perhaps a wave after wave.

Digital Embouncing Yunjie New Year Digital Supply Chain Summit and the Arrow 2021 User Conference is held

On November 26th, the theme of "Digital Embouncing"Digital Supply Chain Summit and Arrow 2021 User ConferenceShanda was held, due to the prevention and control of new crown pneumonia epidemic, the meeting took the full line of live broadcast.

Liu Bin, General Manager of the Software of the ArrowDo the topic of "Digital Embouncing Yunjian Newborn",Branch Software Solutions Director LangpengBrought a top 500 retail enterprise digital supply chain practice sharing, the General Assembly also invited Taiwan Carrefour, SEESAW, Sie Sie Coffee, Dermartang Group, the supply chain of Nanjing Weigang Dairy, the supply chain and IT responsible People from the Arrow PartnerHoneywellTechnical experts, share the challenges from retail, manufacturing and logistics in digital transformation, and their respective practical experience.

Liu BinIn the speech, the status quo and trend of supply chain digital development are analyzed, introducing the Digital Supply Chain SaaS Cloud Solutions, and the Best Practice Sharing of the Color Arrow Digital Supply Chain.

Digitalization after the epidemic is also continuously accelerated.Liu Bin pointed out that the epidemic accelerated the digital process, and domestic companies have more practices and attempts in digitalization. Future companies will be digital companies. As a software company, we have been thinking about how to use digital technology to help companies implement transformation. The development of globalization, the new business model is endless; the driver of e-commerce has played a booster role in the supply chain, and the process of driving the supply chain is rapidly accelerated. In the future supply chain, digitization is to face all practitioners. How to embrace the supply chain digital, practice supply chain digitization, how to make our solution help customers achieve digital acceleration transformation, and the Arrows have been thinking.

Liu Bin conducted a comprehensive interpretation of the characteristics and differences between traditional supply chains and digital supply chains.

Traditional supply chain

Linear.Many companies’ supply chains, from suppliers to end customers, the communication of information is from top, from left to right, linear.

Push, plan, response.The plan is puspension, and how to perform the supply chain to respond to the prediction of the order.

Static: Based on historical transactions.Static plans to drive the supply chain execution, rules based on historical transaction input.

Depending on the independent information system.The past supply chain systems are independent information systems, there may be on the server, or stand-alone program, not connectivity.

Optimize the order, shipment or order.Although the plan is optimized, more is based on aging, shipping or order optimization.

People make decisions based on machine input.Decision-dependent people enter, machine output.

Digital supply chain

In recent years, the change in digital supply chain isChanges in the supply chain system.

Networked, synergy.Ecological, synergistic, and networked.

Lap, predict, action.Supply chain partners are online. Alternately incorporate the changes in the market into the forecast.

Dynamic: Adaptation to changing.The full number of supply chains are currently running, which is dynamic, no longer a simple response, more actions, can adapt to changing conditions, agile response market changes.

Collaborative platform for integrated digital technology.Information from the IT system and OT (operating technology) system is integrated. The development of the entire supply chain technology includes: cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), big data, 5G and mobile technology, digital twins, block chains, etc., the ability to digital supply chains has greatly improved. Finally solve how to make the supply chain quickly, achieve the collaboration of the supply chain, in recent years, the Arrow has been committed to using digital technology to help companies reshape the supply chain.

Optimize according to profits and service levels.When making optimization, it is not optimized by nodes, shipping or orders, and the decision-making is optimized to balance the service level and profit.

The machine is driven decisions under human supervision (AI and machine learning).More AI and machine learning have been added to the supply chain link, changed the case of decision making in the past, now, the machine is driving decisions under human supervision.

We are happy to see that more and more advanced companies are practical, landing these advanced philosophy. Digital supply chains from technology innovation, product listing time, improvement of production efficiency, reduce cost, and ultimately enhance customer satisfaction and service level, and create value for the company.

The Arrow has been practicing, and the company reconstructs the supply chain through digital technology.The Board Cloud Platform Power SCM Cloud, helping companies achieve orders from suppliers to the factory, to 2B, 2C users, warehouse performance, coordinated optimization and data analysis.

Based on years of experience in manufacturing, retail and logistics industry, integration cloud computing, mobile, Internet of Things and big data, to create an end-to-end transparent digital supply chain for enterprises;

At present, domestic leading integrated order management (OMS Cloud), Transportation Management (TMS Cloud), Warehouse Management (WMS Cloud), An Integrated Supply Chain (SaaS);

The system is updated every two weeks, improving the flexibility of the system, compared to one version of the traditional software, can respond more quickly to customer demand changes;

AI layout: Arrow Supply Chain Optimization Products: Formulating Artificial Intelligence Laboratory with Huazhong University of Science and Technology, R & D Road Transport Optimization – TO Cloud, Load Optimization – Los Cloud, Inventory Optimization – IOS Cloud and other AI products, help customer intelligence upgrades.

The "three-step strategy" from the supply chain, to the data service and the AI ??service, and then to the open collaborative platform to innovate the supply chain digital upgrade, provide fast and landing path.

Basic SaaS service:Introduce multiple SaaS products and cloud services to improve the digital upgrade capabilities of enterprise supply chain;

Data services and AI services:AI helps companies optimize the route, loading optimization and warehousing to reduce costs and improve service levels; through SaaS accumulated data, provide large data analysis capabilities, providing a basis for dynamic decisions;

Open Enterprise Supply Chain Association Cloud Platform:On the basis of a large number of empowerment, connect more of the goods, 3PL, and express, carriers, cargo matching platforms, or financial institutions to enter the main entrance of the company’s digital logistics supply chain.

ProfoundRetail, consumer goods, medicine, manufacturing, car and logisticsWaiting for industries, and the arrow has gained affirmation of new and old customers in many industries in 2021. The Arrow always thinksThe software’s cloudization, SaaSization is an inevitable trendThis concept has received more than 200 industrial head customers and 500 customers to empower digitization. In the future, the Arrow will strive to do better, continuously innovate products through digital technology, and continue to create value for customers.

A top 500 retail company

Digital supply chain practice sharing

Lanpeng Arrow Software Solutions Director

Mr. Lan PengIntroduction, the supply chain management capabilities of this company, as well as the information technology capability is the cornerstone of success, and these core competitiveness can continue to evolve and upgrade with scientific and technological progress and innovation. In the retail industry market, it is facing a huge era change background. The company firmly implements the full channel strategy, which makes it all in China’s professional logistics center, e-commerce warehouse, pre-library, VMI warehouse, store, member store together The huge supply chain service network, through the integration of information technology, the intelligent algorithm’s overall plan, providing digital empowerment for enterprise logistics.

Intelligent warehouse management

– New Retail Digital Foundation

Liu Shunqing Taiwan Carrefour Logistics Director

Mr. Liu ShunqingIt is mentioned that Taiwan Carrefour is the largest mass trafficking in Taiwan. Under the pressure of the full channel of the new retail line, logistics management urgently needs a number of transformation. He introduced the application project of its smart warehouse management from the background and objectives of the project. By integrating picking such as AGV, CAPS, VLM, support the peak of Yue Kuanyuan as high as 120,000 boxes, picking efficiency is increased by 60% +, and the pick-up accuracy is as high as 99.95%.

How do companies build

Tailored digital supply chain

Zhang Yusu Coffee Supply Chain Director

Mr. Zhang YuFrom the new retail perspective, the digital supply chain is experienced, compared to the different opportunities and challenges of the traditional supply chain and the digital supply chain, sharing the use of the digital transformation in the supply chain in the supply chain and the digital supply chain ROI analysis method, and combined with the relevant case as us Many experience and methods of reference, and show us a positive practice of new coffee and beverage brands in digital transformation.

Mini supply chain to help

New upgrade of medical retail industries

Master Diendang Director

Mr. Ma WansanIt is pointed out that the Chinese pharmaceutical market is the world’s second largest pharmaceutical market, with an annual composite growth rate of more than 7.5%, leading the world, in the context of innovative reform and development of domestic two-ticket system, tax reform, and the Chinese medical logistics industry also happens. Many changes, the level of medical logistics technology continues to improve, and the construction of information construction is achieved. During the Digitally transformation process, we found that the transportation management information is blind spots. Based on these backgrounds, we cooperated in 2020 to build TMS cloud projects, bringing great promotion to our company’s transformation and upgrading.

Wisdom upgrade plus

– Digital supply chain of manufacturing

Cao Jun Shangshi Transport Electric Co., Ltd. IT Director

Mr. Cao JunSaid, under the harsh external conditions such as epidemic, short-core, in the development of industrial 4.0, digital chemical plant, the old company in the automotive parts industry, the first echelon of auto parts – Shanghai Industrial Transport Electric Co., Ltd. Upgrade the supply chain management system to upgrade the supply chain management system through self-built industrial Internet – Shangqi Yun, with the Software System supplier supplier supplier, upgrade the supply chain management system to achieve supply chain management automation, digitization, intelligence, synergy.

IT Employment Business: Digital Duzzy Dairy

Supply link

Zhu Feng Nanjing Weigang Dairy CIO

Mr. Zhu FengFirst, share the IT strategy using digital technology to realize the digital transformation of enterprises from governance, management, and fully shared the digital supply chain exploration and attempt of Weigang, and its construction of professional warehouse management systems and support multi-brand full scene transportation Experience in the TMS transportation management system of the business. Mr. Zhu Feng shared how to deal with typical pain points and cold chains of supply chain, optimize supply chain services, and then achieve industry synergy.

Honeywell Fugex Warehouse

Yao Wenyuan Honeywell Solution Marketing Manager

Ms. Yao WenyuanIt is believed that all industries achieve the change of the supply chain by reconstructing the overall interaction, connecting all domain data. In the digital age, "Data Drive" is the core strategy of enterprise growth. Honeywell’s keen to improve productivity, so that we will continue to understand the company, always focus on the core issues that truly affect customer business, based on industry-leading technology and patents, we continue to improve operational efficiency and productivity, but also reduce New ways of human cost. Join hands with Honeywell, you can build the interconnected staff, make it faster, more accurate, and more flexibly adapt to the growing demand, reduce operating costs, and greatly enhance the efficiency of warehousing.

Scientists Develop Intelligent Diagnostics App: Voice can be identified by cough

Russian experts have developed a neural network diagnostic system that can judge whether the patient has new crown pneumonia through cough. The mobile phone app Acoustery based on the diagnostic system is also developed.

According to reports, the project leader, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Dmitry Mikhailov, a researcher, said that the diagnostic system can "visualize" recorded cough, transformed into a spectrogram, with the naked eye Identify the characteristics of neoguanponic symptoms. It is reported that the diagnostic system discerns the patient’s cough is caused by new crown pneumonia or is caused by other respiratory diseases. The use of mobile app acoustery is very simple, just coughing the phone microphone, the program will make a diagnosis in real time.

Acoustery application is more than 85% of diagnostic accuracy for neoggle pneumonia, and can continue to be improved. It can be integrated into an independent application to Apple, Google, and other mobile software developers, can also be integrated into a variety of terminals.

Work help online education intelligent hardware brand "carbon oxygen", launch a variety of products such as learning pen, learning lights, etc.

Educational intelligent hardware products from carbon-oxygen flagship stores

Mustard Stack Recently, the homework helps the newly launched education intelligent hardware in the "喵" mobile phone app open page page"Carbon Oxygen"And for learning pen drainage. Users click the button to jump to the Tmall flagship store where the learning pen is located."Carbon Brand".

Mustard pile noted that in addition to learning pen, the product of the carbon-oxygen flagship store is covered with dictionary pen, intelligent learning lights, and learning headphones. In addition to the printer "喵 机" series, the homework will further expand the categories of educating intelligent hardware tracks.

Among them, the carbon oxygen whole subject pen price is 1399-1899 yuan, not only can scan English words and sentences,It also has a question of answering questions, and the functions of a non-three.Built-in 300 million + question banks, covering the small high disciplines, all themes.Parents can remotely manage the use of learning pen,Through the "Carbon Oxygen Smart" mobile phone app Remotely turn off the answer analysis, the child can also use the learning pen to talk to parents. Carbon oxygen use pen will load member service, and open a video, easy test point video analysis after opening members.

Carbon oxygen eye protection LED is priced at 1299 yuan, and the table lamp base is equipped with an electronic screen to act as a learning machine. In terms of eye protection, the learning light uses forward lighting technology to have a smart reminder function of sitting position. In terms of learning, the learning lamp has a function of screech, job inspection, wrong question, one-click straight printer. Like a pens, video precision services are also members’ exclusive features.

Carbon oxygen-learning headphones are priced at 699 yuan, with active noise reduction, eardem management and other functions. On the learning service, learn the headset’s built-in audio teach and self-cultivation materials.Also have a function of AI oral evaluation, English listening simulation.The AI ??oral evaluation function is expected to be on December 31.

The carbon oxygen dictionary pen is priced at 999 yuan, the scanned recognition rate is 98%, supports offline translation inquiry, cross-bank scan, real-time voice translation, and pronunciation evaluation.

In addition, the carbon-oxygen flagship store also has an electronic writing product "Carbonic LCD small blackboard" for 49-99 yuan. "Small Blackboard" is a full screen design, the screen is free, supports no delay.

Tmall online store information shows that the operators of the carbon-oxygen flagship store are from Nanjing Baiyi Strong Network Technology Co., Ltd., founded on September 24, 2020. According to the information recorded in the sky, Nanjing Baiyi Striving Network Technology Co., Ltd. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hong Kong Co., Ltd.Registered capital is $ 150 million.

On November 16 this year, the statutory representatives and business scope of Nanjing have been adjusted. The legal representative was changed from Chen Gangming to Song. The business scope is adjusted to develop, artificial intelligence theory and algorithm software development, data processing and storage support services, service consumption robot manufacturing, information system operation maintenance services, Internet data services, information technology consulting services, etc.

In August, the homework helped the transformation plan. In the coming months, the work of work will be launched more education intelligent hardware products around the two scenarios of students study and live. In the field of quality education, the homework has been launched in the field of deer programming, little deer art, deer learning power, Xiaolan Go and other literary class products, six products have been owned in this area.

Intelligent Network Auto Conference staged "car mobilization"

It is equipped with an automatic driving patrol car with riot shield and track, which can be self-awakening the automatic driving cleaning car of "Going to work", which is able to fly to complete the delivery of the "Bumblebee" drone, no direction discs, such as space capsules, general automatic driving Bus … 2021 World Intelligent Network Auto Conference and China International New Energy and Intelligent Network Auto Exhibition Recently opened in Beijing, the 50,000 square meters of exhibition areas staged a wonderful car mobilization.
The reporter learned that my country’s smart network car test mileage has reached 5 million kilometers, and the new energy car ownership also spans 6 million markings. Beijing will combine the deployment of smart urban construction, relying on high-level automatic driving demonstration zone, build the competitiveness of the innovation and development of intelligent networks.

Recently, 2021 World Intelligent Network Auto Conference was grandly opened in Beijing.
National networking vehicles have exceed 5 million vehicles
From September 25th to 28th, the 2021 World Intelligent Network Auto Conference and China International New Energy and Intelligent Nets Auto Exhibition were held in Shunyi New Guo. This conference consists of four large sectors of the exhibition, the forum meeting, professional events and dynamic activities. The exhibition is 50,000 square meters. It takes more than 180 exhibitors to attract more than 180 exhibitors. .
The Party Secretary and Minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said in the opening ceremony that in recent years, my country has promoted the development of automobile networks, intelligent and electricity synergy, and intelligent networks have a strong development momentum. my country’s key technology is constantly breaking, car laser radar, artificial intelligent chip integrates international advanced level, and the new car market penetration rate of L2-level passenger cars reached 20%. As the test demonstration is accelerated, the national open test area is over 5,000 square kilometers, and the total test is 5 million kilometers.
According to reports, after the deployment of the license network, more than 3,500 kilometers of roads have achieved intelligent upgrades in the country, and the networked terminal has more than 5 million vehicles. Xiao Yaqing said that in order to accelerate key technological innovation, my country will also focus on key technologies to carry out joint research, and promote intelligent networks to speed up innovation and safe application.
Liu Wei, deputy director of the Ministry of Public Security, is also disclosed, electricized, intelligent, and network link has become the development trend and trend of the automotive industry. Up to now, my country’s new energy vehicle guarantee is 6.78 million, and it has been registered by 1.87 million this year, accounting for 9.2% of the total new registered automobile. In the future, the Ministry of Public Security will jointly universally accelerate open road testing.
It is expected that 6 million online view
The light blue body is matched with a black glass, and the model close to the space capsule is designed to make the bus in the future. On the Yutong booth, a "space capsule" smart driving passenger car attracted everyone’s attention. Look in in the car, the smart driving passenger car does not have a steering wheel, no brake, no throttle. According to reports, this smart driving bus is based on 360-degree covered all day, and all-day perception technology can be achieved in all kinds of weather and different weather conditions such as sunny, rain, and fog. Even in high-rise districts, under the high-level district, under the tunnel The GPS signal is weak, and the centimeter positioning accuracy can also be maintained.
Self-wake-up, starting on the street to clean the garbage at four o’clock in the morning, and complete the cleaning work of the road before the city wakes up, providing a clean travel environment for the public. This hardworking "sanitation worker" is an automatic driving cleaning car from the mushroom vehicle. It has a variety of functions that support it on the road that is large and the complex traffic of traffic is also easy to complete the task.
Since 2018, the World Intelligent Network Auto Conference has been held in a consecutive, Shunyi has become a permanent site of the General Assembly. The organizing committee expects that the audience of this session will exceed 10,000, and the total number of people can watch the total number of people can more than 6 million.
Automatic driving car competition "IQ"
Around the loose well cover, courteous pedestrians, avoid the roadside stacking carton, timely dodge the electric car … The smart network car meeting naturally cannot be limited in indoors, and the automatic driving vehicles must have a higher outdoor, Test the true "IQ".
On the afternoon of September 25, the first national smart driving test (final) departure ceremony was held in the new national exhibition. In addition to the indoor static display, this year’s conference will upgrade the automatic demo experience of the automatic demo experience to the "real knife gun" test. In the end, the four0 participating teams will finally advance to this finals.
From the heavy load truck to a high-tech automatic driving car, the participating models have enclosed Tesla, Wei, Xiaopeng, Ideal, and other domestic sales. All smart network car mass production models.
With the official car of the participating team, the elites of the intelligent driving areas, show the leading outcome of intelligent technology to the public. During the finals, each participating team will carry out the competition of 11 test projects, covering the pedestrians of blind districts, continuous obstacles identification, and responding, traffic light recognition, automatic emergency braking, and the lane occupant, lane identification and response, Left-turn vehicle conflict pass, etc. to test the real performance of the intelligent network car in the case of emergency.
The organizing committee said that the test will investigate the overall technical level of the industry. .
"We will urge vendors to fix exaggerated promotion of smart driving systems, avoid misunderstanding and misuse, thereby reducing related accidents and life property losses." The relevant person in charge of the Competition Organizing Committee said.
(Article Source: Beijing Daily)

How can I become a CNAS recognition reviewer?

This article will become a review and level of reviewers, and become an evaluation of the review, the reviewer’s hiring and level, which has become an evaluation of the review.

Since 2019, the initial training of the CNAS approved reviewer is conducted by the "lack of people’s lack of field, the project leader recommended candidate" is carried out, and is not in the official website. The training activities plan. Anyone who is intended to be an accredited reviewer needs to register and maintain relevant training intent information in the CNAS reviewer management platform. If the relevant resource needs, CNAs will invite you to participate in the corresponding initial training. Participate in the initial training test qualified, will be hired as a CNAS approved reviewer.
First, the conditions needed

To become a CNAS reviewer, at least the following conditions are required:

1. According to CNAS’s case of review resource requirements, after the recommendation of the project, participate in the "recognition reviewer initial training course" of CNAS organizations, and qualified;

2. Comply with national laws and regulations, no bad behavior records;

3. Physical health, physical obstacles that affect normal review work can be affected, aged 60 years old;

4. Undergraduate and above, with relevant professional intermediate or above technical titles, or equivalent level of technical titles;

Note: At the field of certification bodies, for candidates with strong professional technical background, it is possible to relax it to the university specialist.

5. Full-time work experience

(1) University undergraduate for at least 4 years (including 4 years) work experience; postgraduate and above at least 3 years (including 3 years) work experience;

(2) The certification body, the detection and inspection agency reviewer has at least 2 years related to qualified assessment, including recognition, certification, inspection, review, standardization, etc.

Second, ways and methods

1. Log in to the homepage of the CNAS website, the right "Online Service" → Click "CNAS Approved Reviewer Management Platform (CNAS-AMP)" login, orDirect click linkLog in. Login page has an operation manual, please download and read before the operation.

2. CNAS-AMP supports GooglechRome browser, IE11 browser, 360 browser (speed mode), recommended GooglechRome browser.

3. Please accurately fill in personal information, educational experience, work experience, training experience, business achievements, other qualifications, etc. After the registration is successful, it will force to exit and log in again. When logging in again, it can be performed by "User Name + Password" or "Mobile Phone Number + Verification Code". If the password is displayed, click "Forgot Password" to perform the retrieved code.

4. After logging in again, be sure to file a personal "intent system and ability code", that is, what is the initial training of which approval system, and personal skills.

5. Each year, CNAS will update the desired area of ??the year, and those who meet the desired fields can participate in initial training after screening and recommendation, so please maintain personal "professional coverage". This information is not required for the time of the application, if the recognition system you apply is temporarily required.

Third, the reviewer hires

The training exam is qualified to be one of the necessary conditions employed by the reviewer. For those who are hired, CNAs will issue an employment notice. The personnel that are notified will submit relevant application materials according to the description of the notice.

When reviewing the Reviewer, the reviewer needs to sign the Service Agreement, as well as the "Improvement and Confidentiality Statement" and "Accreditation Code of Accrace" and commit to comply with relevant requirements.

The CNAS reviewer is divided into three levels of internship reviewers, (technology) reviewers and director reviewers. The level of reviewers was first hired for the internship reviewer.

The internship reviewer can gradually advance to the (technical) reviewer, and the director of the reviewer.

Fourth, how to participate in the review

CNAS approved review work is arranged by various business units. Each business department is responsible for accepting acceptance and its recognition review management. For details of the specific responsible recognition of each business department, please refer to the "Contact Us" of the CNAS official website.

Review process and requirements:

(1) Task Receive

The accused did not mean immediately or continued to be approved immediately or continued to be approved. Under the premise of ensuring assessment, the CNAS business unit shall comprehensively consider the appointment review task based on factors such as the evaluation of the approved / recognized field, the accomplishment of the accomplishment and work experience of reviewers. You will get in touch with the academic procedures by telephone or email by the person in charge of the business department.

1. The certification agency project person in charge will reach the "Review Task Book" from the members of the evaluation team;

2. Laboratory and relevant agencies and inspection agency project heads downward "On-site Review Notice" to the members of the evaluation team; when necessary, issue a "Work Task Participant" to the member unit of the evaluation team.

(2) document review

1. The certification agency reviewer needs to complete the document review work in a timely manner in accordance with the "Review Task Book" issued by the business unit.

2. Laboratory and relevant agencies and inspection agencies documentation implementation review team leader responsibility system. After receiving the application material, the assessment team leader has reviewed its documentation. When needed, the assessment team leaders handed the relevant technical materials to the corresponding review team members to review and propose review requirements. The accused was reviewed to the review of the results of the review.

(3) Review preparation

Before the on-site review, the accused should actively communicate with the head of the assessment, understand the preparation requirements and precautions. In accordance with the review plan, detailed review planning is conducted on the scope of the review: including the on-site review, attention needs to be concerned; At the same time, the documents and tables are prepared on site, such as recognition rules, recognition guidelines, and application descriptions, review forms, review reports, attachments, etc.

(4) On-site review activities

On-site review activities include the first meeting, on-site observation (necessary), on-site review, interior meeting, and last meetings.

(5) Review requirements

Note: Laboratory and related agencies, the specific review of inspection agencies requires the latest version of the CNAS-Wi14 Series Recognized Review Journey.

Wikipedia | from black and white film to color 4K, color version of "the eternal wave" coming!

October 2021,my country’s first 4K color turn black and white feature film restoration, "the eternal wave"In the national cinema release. The film original film produced by the August First Film Studio in 1958, is China’s first part about my party hidden front heroes of classic black and white movies, have inspired and touched countless people.

Figure Source: IMDb
Time flies, 60 years later, when the movie onto the screen again, many viewers saying that "This repair is not just a movie, it is the collective memory of several generations of Chinese people." Color key to open the door of memory, the restoration team from the Central Radio and Television center 5G video and new media platform composed of China Film Archive, the use of proprietaryMan-machine interactive AI (Artificial Intelligence) color technology and traditional repair techniques,Make this classic film full of new vigor. The movie is not thriving, since the 2014 Shanghai International Film Festival’s first "4K restoration" cell, "4K restoration" into public view, "founding ceremony," "blessing," "Pianist," "Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s stone "and many other domestic and foreign classic films and animated works through 4K restoration technology" fundamentally changed "the constant changes and progress thanks to video technology.
Before entering the digital age, the film’s main storage medium is film. Because of the age, limited storage conditions and excessive transfer, plays, and other factors, the footage will be contaminated, fade, is scratched, leading to judder, blurring, flickering and other problems during playback. And with the rapid development of a variety of digital technology, film screenings ushered in the digital age, more to enhance the rendering of film and film restoration. In the current technology, the film after the repair can achieve the best 4K resolution, you can do both provide a clearer, high-quality version of the works, but also restore the original texture of the screen as possible.

"Eternal wave" color fix documentary Source: Central video
Generally,Repair movie is divided into three steps: physical restoration, digital restoration and art restoration.It refers to the physical restoration of the original film for cleaning and repair. Digital restoration is to 35mm digitized document scanning sequence frames, by a computer to resolve the dynamic images is not smooth, blurred picture, color and serious issues, up frame, the frame rate of repair, extended resolution, color, sound fixes and so on. Art restoration is required to follow the considerations of art, try to figure out the original team ideas, the details of the picture some missing some degree of improvement and re-creation, so that the greatest degree movie repaired fit the original film, as the repair of cultural relics. " repair the old as "an ideal target for film restoration.
During the repair process, turn black and white color is the more difficult part, this process is not simply to fill, but also according to the region’s story takes place, to determine the most qualified of color, relying solely on the traditional way of manual repair, efficiency is very low, with the AI ??technology can greatly improve the efficiency of repair. AI technology color principle is to let the computer through a large machine learning algorithms to push and built model, intelligent character recognition, things, environment and other elements and automatically color. Of course, AI technology there will be some color deviation, requires a combination of manual repair together to complete, in order to restore the most realistic color, texture, three-dimensional, gloss, etc., to achieve a more realistic effect.
Film restoration just a few seconds of screen time may need to spend a day, but this is just the "repair" work at this stage. After the details of the research data before the repair and restoration of scrutiny, audit is essential to modify the link, after all, is a virtual repair of films, but to restore the true history of flesh and blood. To "the eternal wave" as an example, the film’s restoration team took more than seven months, completed the 165 000 black and white images frame by frame restoration work, the big screen by the audience back to that period of soul-stirring heroic age.

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